- Updated on 23 Jul 2020
Being able to plan and run customer discovery (not sales) interviews with potential or existing customers and then to extract actionable insights from these conversations is a critical skill for self reliant entrepreneurs. Because doing face-to-face interviews (primary market research) is the best source of learning about potential customer needs when thinking of starting a business, and the best way to avoid wasting money on developing a product or service that no one wants.
But interviewing people you don't know is uncomfortable for most of us. Most people struggle in finding people to interview, in conducting goods interviews and in extracting insights from those interviews.
Most people avoid interviewing like the plague.
But the experts say that you need to do a minimum of 60 strong interviews to avoid a false positive... so here are some tricks to getting going with strong interviews.
1. Remind yourself to discover - not sell.
In general, people are interested in talking about themselves. And people don't really love being sold too. The good news is that early in your startup journey (and forever after actually when you are talking to customers!), you need to know if people actually have a problem that needs to be solved and to do that, you need to get them talking about themselves, their work, their problems. If you go into your meeting with the intent to learn and not just rant about your terrific idea, you might just learn something useful. And if they like you, they will likely ask you about your idea. If they don't ask, don't bother sharing. They are not that interested.
2. Craft better overall questions to get usable answers
Bad customer conversations aren’t just useless. Worse, they convince you that you’re on the right path. They give you a false positive which causes you to over-invest your cash, your time, and your team. Even when you’re not actively screwing something up, those pesky customers seem hellbent on lying to you.
The Mom Test is a set of simple rules for crafting good questions that even your mom can't lie to you about.
10 rules of thumb to help you craft better questions:
- Opinions are worthless.
- Anything involving the future is an over-optimistic lie.
- People will lie to you if they think it’s what you want to hear.
- People know what their problems are, but they don’t know how to solve those problems.
- You're shooting blind until you understand their goals.
- Some problems don’t actually matter.
- Watching someone do a task will show you where the problems and inefficiencies really are, not where the customer thinks they are.
- If they haven't looked for ways of solving it already, they're not going to look for/buy yours.
- While it’s rare for someone to tell you precisely what they’ll pay you, they’ll often show you what it’s worth to them.
- People want to help you, but will rarely do so unless you give them an excuse to do so.
Good Question vs. Bad Question
|Do you think it’s a good idea?||Awful question!|
|Would you buy a product which did X?||Bad question.|
|How much would you pay for X?||Bad question.|
|What would your dream product do?||So-so question, but only if you ask good follow-ups.|
|Why do you bother?||Good question.|
|What are the implications of that?||Good question.|
|Talk me through the last time that happened.||Good question.|
|Talk me through your workflow.||Good question.|
|What else have you tried?||Good question.|
|Would you pay X for a product which did Y?||Bad question.|
|How are you dealing with it now?||Good question.|
|Where does the money come from?||Good question.|
|Who else should I talk to?||Good question.|
|Is there anything else I should have asked?||Good question.|
3. Use a conversation guide with 5 key questions focused around problem/solution discovery
Interviewing customers is a special kind of torture. But we are here to share with you a guide that can help you navigate that hell until you find your own rhythm.
Below is a video by entrepreneur and author of the FOCUS framework that has 5 simple question to take your interviews from being a drag to efficient moment of information gathering:
The 5 questions can be found below:
- Tell me a story about
insert problem context.
- What was the hardest part?
- Why was it hard?
- How do you solve it?
- How did it work?
They own the problem, you own the solution
You aren’t allowed to tell your customers what their problem is, and in return, they aren’t allowed to tell you what to build. They own the problem, you own the solution. But you are the one guiding the conversation!